A little background information on this week’s Squat Fix: Sam is new mother just getting back to the gym, she currently has no competitive strength or physique goals but would like to get back in shape and is using the squat as a tool to do so.
So let’s start with the good. Sam actually keeps a fairly neutral back posture (front to back) that doesn’t significantly change shape in any portion of the rep, she doesn’t display any “butt wink” or posterior pelvic tilt at least at this depth. Knee tracking is pretty good as well, no serious deviations from the hip or the ankle are observed at any time during the reps (small twitches can be ignored unless pain is present), the lower leg joints make nice stacked lines from the hips to the ankles. Although we can certainly optimize a few things, the most important think to note is that this is fairly safe squat that could be progressed, again, so long as no pain is present
Ok so now let’s get into some things we want to fix right away and some things we may want to change/optimize dependent on goals. First thing is we need to get you out of those running shoes! I’ve written an entire article on this and will direct you here https://blacksmithfitness.wordpress.com/2016/11/25/the-best-and-worst-shoes-for-lifting/ but the key points are: Running shoes have large amounts of relatively soft cushioning, this weakens spinal reflexes from the input from the feet that tell you where you are in relation to gravity and where the load is, this isn’t a good thing and makes you unbalanced and reduces the load you can use, leading to less muscle built and less calories burned. Second thing we want to fix right away is turning the head while under load, at Blacksmith Fitness we just call this “pulling a bro” because it’s a move usually reserved for checking yourself out flexing, but we’ll give Sam the benefit of the doubt here and assume that she’s just looking around. Aside from the narcissistic nature of “pulling a bro” the real problem lies in that although the spine can move segmentally (one piece at a time) it’s ability to do so is quite limited, and therefore even to create small movements, relies on several vertebrae to produce the motion. The body will follow the head or the hips, and creating rotation under vertical load is not something the spine enjoys very much – don’t wait for it to tell you! Find a spot anywhere from 10ft in front of you, to the just below the imaginary horizon to fixate your eyes when you squat.
The next thing is Sam is currently showing a more glute/lower back dominant squatting pattern, as you can tell from the forward lean of her torso being greater than the forward lean of her shins. There’s nothing wrong with this except in this case Sam isn’t hitting full depth and glute recruitment isn’t maximized until at least a parallel thigh position is reached (crease of the hip is in line with the top of the knee), leaving some valuable muscle growth on the table. More depth also equals more mechanical work done as well as more time under tension per rep, both of these things have positive influence on muscle growth as well as energy burned. If the lower back becomes a limiting factor later on as loads increase, Sam may want to learn to use a belt or move towards matching her shin angle to her torso angle to continue progressing – this may be a simple as thinking “sit down” as opposed to “sit back” or there may actually be an ankle mobility issue preventing her from doing so. In the case where a mobility issue may be the limiting factor, Sam could use plates under the heels or specific squat shoes with a raised heel while she works on the requisite mobility to hit the desired position without the use of external aids.
The last thing we’re going to talk about it is Sam’s bar set up. First, let’s get away from the preloaded barbells, they force you to shoulder press the weight into position, which limits the amount of weight you’ll be able to use, and even if you don’t have any competitive goals, to get anything out of the squat you’re going to need more weight than what you can shoulder press into position. Definitely find a squat rack to do your squats in. Right now the bar is in a high bar position (meaning the bar sits on top of the upper traps) this is probably one of the most comfortable places to put the bar, and also the easiest to prevent rolling down the back, however, it’s not a license to leave the bar there passively. Instead of leaving the bar sitting in place, instead think “break the bar over my back” and you should feel the whole back light up, this engages the lats, which attach all the way down into the sacral fascia and an exert a force on the hips, keeping you from folding forward as you start to use heavier weights.
All in all you have fairly safe progress-able squat that needs a few tweaks to get a bit more out of it, and definitely to change your shoes or just take them off, and to find a spot to fixate your head and eye position, and may need to make some long term tweaks to ensure continued progress. Happy squatting!
If you’d like to see a powerlifter’s squat broken down, check out our last article here: