Category Archives: Weightlifting

How Gym Mirrors Make you Weaker, and How to Hack the Visual Systems for Better Performance (Part 2)


Now last article I hinted at the partial and fully blindfolded method, and how and when to use them. If you haven’t read part 1 of this article go read it now. Seriously, click that little menu button, and go to the home page and it’s the article right underneath this one. For those of you that won’t, here is the basic points:

  1. Your brain lifts the weight; your muscles are passive and just apply the force they’re told to
  2. Vision is incredibly complex and takes a lot of attention and focus – “brain horsepower” that isn’t being used to power your muscles
  3. Mirrors invert the image and your brain must work even harder to produce an image. This makes you react slower, and your output to the muscles weaker
  4. Looking in the mirror, you make small mistakes that you can’t see, often leading to pain and cumulative injury. Mirrors actually make your form worse.
  5. You have an internal movement analysis system call the proprioceptive system, and it’s faster and more accurate than the visual system. Increase the output of the proprioceptive system by focusing less on the visual and more on the internal
  6. Face away from the mirror when working in the rack

So hopefully by now I’ve convinced you that mirrors aren’t helping you in your quest to improve your form or increase your strength, and the take home point was to turn around and face away from the mirror while in the rack, this time around I want to take it a step further, and show you how you can hack the visual systems to improve strength and coordination, and improve athletic performance, here’s how:

The relationship between vision and the inner ear, how less than 1% of your vision takes 50% of the brain’s visual processing, how an exercise fits on the stability continuum changes the need for focal vision

Try this:

  1. Take your squat position, and put your arms straight out in front of you (think old school zombie movie or frankenstein)
  2. Close your eyes
  3. Squat to the bottom and hold for a 3-4 seconds
  4. Return to the start
  5. Bonus points if you can have someone film you eyes open vs eyes closed
  6. Repeat the experiment with one leg in front of the other and do a split squat
  7. Repeat the experiment by taking one leg off the ground and doing a single leg deadlift

Chances are that if you are a decent squatter that you accomplished the bodyweight squat with little difficulty, and with the eyes closed, it was smooth and you may have noticed some sensations you don’t normally notice (glute stretch in the bottom, the thighs pressed against the torso, tension in your knee etc). If you filmed the two attempts, you’ll probably notice that the eyes closed version looks smoother and more controlled than the eyes open one. Chances are the split squat was harder, but you probably still did it. If you weren’t able to do the first two, then your proprioceptive system needs some work, but fear not, there’s instructions on how to improve below. Now for the one legged deadlift; if you did it, congratulations, you have a very efficient proprioceptive system, but even if you did, it was probably pretty damn difficult and may have taken you a couple of tries.

So closing the eyes improved the bodyweight squat but made the split squat and one legged deadlift worse. In all three of the exercises we closed the eyes to increase the output of the proprioceptive system (much like the blind man example in part 1) and took away the visual system’s scanning of the external environment. So what was the difference, and how are we going to use this information? The biggest difference was the stability demands of the exercise; with each progression the exercise selection became more unstable.

Low stability demand exercises, think two feet on the ground or torso supported, centre of gravity (the weight being used) is at or below the hips, and moving in one plane (not twisting or rotating in multiple directions) i.e. deadlift variations, bench press variations, T-bar rows, barbell hip thrusts etc. rely more on your strength than on your ability to balance. These types of exercises benefit from eyes closed or or fully blindfolded methods by taking the attention normally spent on the visual system and allowing you to focus it entirely on the internal cues arising from your proprioceptive system. This can increase the control you have over that motor pattern, leading to more efficient patterns of muscle recruitment, better movement quality, and increased strength.

Somewhere in the middle of the continuum lies exercises like loaded squats (these are different than our bodyweight example because the centre of gravity is higher), split squats, lunge variations, and other exercises where you actually move through space or rotate like barbell twists. These exercises have a high strength and high stability demand, and therefore completely closing the eyes doesn’t usually improve performance or the rate of skill/form acquisition, this is due to the relationship between the horizon and the inner ear.

You may have had a bad cold or ear infection and felt incredibly dizzy or had mild vertigo; this happens from changing or closing off the input from the inner ear. When the information from the inner ear and the visual system don’t agree, this causes huge problems for you and the resulting confusion usually leads to dizziness, nausea and generally a shitty day. The inner ear and visual system work together and check each other to help you make a decision on where you relate to the pull of gravity and the horizon. So as the stability demands of an exercise increase, so does the need for the visual system, so does this mean we need to take all that valuable attention away from our proprioceptive system and neural drive to the muscles? No, we can use a portion of the visual field instead.

Less than 1% of our visual field takes up 50% or more of our brain’s visual processing power. It’s the 2-3 millimetres right in the center of our visual field and it’s responsible for all the fine detail we see. Try it out, focus on the “O” in this random assortment of letters STKFFTRFOGHTSTVVS now try to read the rest of the letters without changing your focus from the centre of the “O”. The thing is, for exercises in the middle of the continuum, we don’t need this type of focus, we just need a general sense of where we relate to the pull of gravity, and most of that information comes from the very bottom of our peripheral vision. This is where the partial blindfolded method comes in. If you tie a blindfold so that it comes just below the bridge of your nose, the relationship between the inner ear and the visual system is maintained, and your balance improves drastically; however, you still take advantage of the higher output to the proprioceptive system and higher neural drive to the muscles. Meaning all the good things mentioned above, smoother motion, increased strength, and better movement quality still apply.

How about high stability demand exercises? Ones in this category include high velocity movements, especially overhead, or exercises where your head and or body will be moving through space in large degrees. Examples would be the olympic movements and their variations, any kind of jumping or plyometrics, or anything involving catching an implement. For these types of exercises you react not only to gravity, but also to another objects, or are required to manage other significant multi-planar forces; this is what vision is designed for and you need to use it in it’s entirety. That being said, many of these movements can be broken down into components that would fit into the medium to low stability demand area of the continuum, and improved. Once those improved pieces are reintegrated into the whole movement, the whole movement usually improves by better sequencing, improved strength, and hitting key positions in the movement. For example, a kick in soccer could be reduced to the lower leg swing, it could be made more efficient, strengthened, and increased in power, then when the athlete integrates that motion into the full kick with lead up, an increase in shot velocity and accuracy occurs.

You’re now miles away from that person who was squatting in the mirror with terrible form and nagging knee pain, but what if that nagging knee/ankle/hip/shoulder pain isn’t going away? In part 3 I’ll go over how to modulate the visual system to improve that nagging discomfort that could be related to joint stability.

Super Simple Strength Hack: Do simple math problems in between your heavy sets (seriously!) 

Your muscles aren’t the only body system that benefits from active recovery, your nervous system does too. Looking to smash your PR or achieve higher output on high velocity training? Do simple math problems in your rest periods: 7+4, 6×6, 42/2 etc. you can do them in your head, orally, or write them on a piece of paper. 

This works by providing a mild stimulation along the same neural pathways as your high-demand work sets do; think of this as putting your car in idle as opposed to turning it right off after your set. This isn’t one of those voodoo tricks I made up through some shady inference after reading my psyc 101 textbook, it’s a real effect clinically studied in a strength training context. 

Those of you familiar with the optimal arousal curve will find this tip helpful for both the over and under stimulated lifter. For the under stimulated lifter who “shuts his/her car off” in between attempts benefits from the neural stimulation, doing simple math equations brings them up to idle in between sets; however, the over stimulated lifter that is nervous or afraid of the weight/crowd/judge etc. gets a much needed distraction from the nerve wracking events and now must focus on the simple task of completing the equations – essentially bringing them back to the ideal middle ground of the arousal curve, aka idling instead of revving. 

Give this one a shot, and start tapping into the brain’s awesome potential to modulate physical performance. More articles coming in the future on this subject, stay tuned! 

How Important is Exercise Technique Actually?

“Fit the exercise to the person, not the person to the exercise”

Like all things in the fitness and physical training world, there seems to be a varying degree of importance placed on exercise execution; opinions vary from extremely stringent “technique nazi’s” and “keyboard cowboys” that believe there is only one correct way to perform a given task, and even a small variance creates an instantaneous injury, to the “just lift heavy shit, then lift heavier shit” crowd that believes all these functional movement pansies just need to quit doing Pilates and grow some balls. As much as I enjoy watching these two opposing opinions debate on a daily basis, the importance of technique is not a clean cut, black and white, one side of the fence or the other, type argument; the importance of exercise technique actually fits along a continuum that looks something like this, first explained in easy to understand terminology:

SHITTY (you have no idea what you’re doing and you’re not doing it very well, consider signing up for the disc herniation olympics) —–>RISKY TECHNIQUE TO WIN (yeah, dive-bombing your squats and letting the knees come in slightly in the bottom of your squat isn’t great for the hips or knees, but you can squat more weight in the short term, you’ve spent years perfecting this competition technique, but chances are you will pay for this when you’re 40 though)—–> SAFE FOR YOU (no glaring errors that would cause joints to instantaneously explode or immediate dismemberment. Takes into account your own structure and ability, but you’re probably not as effective as you’d like) —–> MASTERY (you can do this in your sleep, you’ve done this 10 000 times and fixed multiple subtleties, some not visible to the eye. This is your perfect technique, things as small as a breath too shallow, a half degree off one way or another means the difference between winning and losing. Your technique will be unique, and may share some similarities with others, but is entirely your own)

For you sport science types (myself included), in proper terminology it would look more like this:

BIOMECHANICALLY DISADVANTAGEOUS (possibility of acute and instantaneous injury, poor leverage angles)—–> COMPETITION EXECUTION FOR MOST STRENGTH SPORTS (best possible performance execution, less possibility of acute and instantaneous injury but likely to produce chronic deficiency)  —–> SAFE FOR A GIVEN POPULATION (safe distribution of load, unlikely to produce instant or chronic injury) —-> OPTIMAL FOR A GIVEN POPULATION (advantageous distribution of load for desired outcome, unlikely to produce instant or chronic injury; mastery of technique determines outcome, variance from perfect form is marked by lower performance)

Today we’re mainly talking about strength training exercises; keep in mind when it comes to the continuum, just because you’ve mastered one exercise doesn’t mean you can do another; approach each exercise accordingly. So the question remains, how can you tell where you fit in this continuum and what should you do once you know? Let’s explain the categories in a little more detail.

Biomechanically Disadvantageous (aka shitty): 

Characteristics of this type of technique are:

  • Excessive shaking
  • Loss of balance
  • Jerky or stalled movement
  • Spinal flexion or excessive rounding of the back in vertically loaded planes
  • Pain
  • Load transferred to passive structures instead of the muscular system
  • Favouring one side more than the other
  • Excessively small range of motion or inability to hit key phases of the movement without compensation
  • Joints moving in planes that put them at risk of injury

Who should train in this range:

  • Total beginners and trainees new to an advanced movement
  • You should strive to spend as little time as possible, no one should intentionally train in this part of the continuum

How to Progress:

  • Reduce the load to as close to zero as possible while gaining confidence with the new movement. Keep the movement slow and controlled, this gives the central nervous system the time and ability to make mistakes in the motor pattern and determine the correct patterns of activation/inhibition of involved muscle groups. Wait for the movement to smooth out before adding load or velocity.
  • Locate the specific reason you may be having trouble with the movement, you simply may not be strong or stable enough for the movement you are attempting: I have yet to see someone capable of a full range body weight pistol squat or one armed pushup with zero training experience, but if the movement is relatively simple and you can’t get into position, try to find the stiff or unstable joint and improve it before integrating it into a compound movement
  • Regress to a simpler version of the movement or use a partial of the full movement. For instance, if you are trying to learn the full snatch (now a popular goal due to the rising popularity of crossfit) Instead of of trying to learn the full lift, learn the first phases of the pull, master the high bar back squat, front squat, overhead squat, high pull, power snatch from the knees, snatch from the knees, and finally the full snatch.
  • Hire a coach. Hopefully an educated and experienced coach that will deliver on their promises.
  • Find a different movement. Yup, sometimes it’s that simple; despite what some Crossfit coaches will try to convince you of, not everyone is built to snatch, or even to deep squat, no matter how much coaching or mobility work you do with them, certain structures will not allow the movement to be done safely. Maybe you can’t snatch, but you can probably still high pull from the knees. There’s always a way to train though.

Risky technique to win (competition execution for most strength sports):

Characteristics or this type of technique are:

  • Compensatory movements to lift a larger load that may have a negative long term effect
  • Only used with a near maximal load
  • Examples include, slight knee buckling in the squat or catch phase of the olympic movement, slight rounding of the back in the deadlift or truck pull, atlas stone lift, and other powerlifting/strongman movements. Cranking the neck back to shorten the lever in backloaded movements.

Who should train in this range:

  • Advanced powerlifters, strongmen, and Olympic weightlifters only in peaking or competition
    • This isn’t technique error, this is an intentional changing of leverage to lift more weight over a very short period of time, the lifter understands the increased risk, but considers it a necessary part of the sport. So no, the lifter bouncing out of the hole while lifting 800lbs isn’t “doing it wrong” and chances are he doesn’t do it all the time either.

Who shouldn’t train in this range:

  • Everyone else.
    • Seriously. I don’t care if you can bench more with your wrists folded back, or you squat more by pancaking, rising the hips fast and then lifting with your back. This will most likely lead to chronic injury and also impedes progress (you’re not actually doing the lift or using the correct muscles). In the long run you will be stronger and have a better physique/transfer to your sport if you commit to a more biomechanically sound form. It may mean initially taking one step back to make 5 steps forward.

Safe for you (safe for a given population):

Characteristics of this type of technique:

  • Smooth controlled movements
  • Full range (for you)
  • Pain free
  • Able to hit key phases of all lifts without compensation
  • Passes the “looks good” test
  • Feel the muscles that are supposed to be working
  • Using the best variation of an exercise for you; some modifications have been made to suit your individual structure, such as plates under the heels in the squat, using 3 finger or holding straps in the front squat, using partial range presses for compromised shoulders, using more knee bend in the deadlift for longer legs etc

Who should train in this range:

  • All recreational bodybuilders, people trying to improve their physique, beginner to intermediate athletes

How to progress:

  • Get stronger. Yup that’s about it. Use an effective written program.
  • Progress to full range movements and less assisting modifications, if possible. Learn to squat without the plates, improve shoulder and wrist mobility to get full grip on front squats etc.

Mastery (optimal for a given population):

Characteristics of this type of technique:

  • Small changes in form that allow an exercise to modified to a person’s specific structure and strengths
  • Most cannot be seen with the naked eye to most people and require an experienced coach, high speed camera, force plate, accelerometer, or other high tech monitoring equipment to implement
  • Examples include: the exact amount of breath to obtain maximal contraction in the transverse abdominus muscle to pneumatically stabilize the spine, learning to use the whip and bounce of the bar in the olympic lifts to create microseconds of zero gravity, hip flexor pinching in the squat to create a stronger stretch reflex, changes in head and eye position to activate different muscle groups in sequence, varying the speed and attention to a specific range of a movement to illicit more growth in a certain muscle group, sport specific transfer of skill

Who should train with this type of technique:

  • Strength athletes in 90% of their training (bodybuilders, powerlifters, strongmen, olympic lifters,  very high level competitive crossfitters)
  • Elite individual and team sport athletes that need an exceptional level of physical preparation and are already extremely strong

Who shouldn’t train with this kind of technique:

  • Everyone else.
    • There’s no need to confuse or over-coach people, some people just need more practice not more cues. If you’re not a competitive athlete or strength athlete then don’t worry about the minutiae.

How to progress:

  • Practice
  • Work with an experienced coach
  • More effective programming and self education

So there you have it: the exercise technique continuum. Hopefully now you realize that the olympic weightlifter dive bombing and caving in their 500lb snatch isn’t doing it wrong, the guy benching with bent wrists and bouncing the bar off his chest isn’t actually getting “mad gainz bro”, and the person who’s squatting slightly above parallel may or may not be “cheating”, so don’t be so quick to point the finger. You need to adapt the exercise to you, not try to force yourself into a cookie cutter technique because so and so on the internet told you to. The more advanced you become the more the technique becomes uniquely your own; this can take years to decades to develop. You’re never done learning. If you’ve made it this far and have specific questions about exercise technique or a certain exercise, don’t be afraid to ask here or on the Blacksmith Fitness Facebook page. Look forward to hearing from you all!